This paper forms part of a larger research agenda focusing on identifying factors that influence patient presentations from mass gathering events.



Aim: This review discusses the need for consistency in mass-gathering research and evaluation from a psychosocial perspective.

Background: Mass gatherings occur frequently throughout the world. Having an understanding of the complexities of mass gatherings is important to determine required health resources. Factors within the environmental, psychosocial, and biomedical domains influence the usage of health services at mass gatherings. A standardized approach to data collection is important to identify a consistent reporting standard for the psychosocial domain.

Method: This research used an integrative literature review design. Manuscripts were collected using keyword searches from databases and journal content pages from 2003 through 2018. Data were analyzed and categorized using the existing minimum data set as a framework.

Results: In total, 31 manuscripts met the inclusion criteria. The main variables identified were use of alcohol or drugs, crowd behavior, crowd mood, rationale, and length of stay.

Conclusion: Upon interrogating the literature, the authors have determined that the variables fall under the categories of alcohol or drugs; maladaptive and adaptive behaviors; crowd behavior, crowd culture, and crowd mood; reason for attending event (motivation); duration; and crowd demographics. In collecting psychosocial data from mass gatherings, an agreed-upon set of variables that can be used to collect de-identified psychosocial variables for the purpose of making comparisons across societies for mass-gathering events (MGEs) would be invaluable to researchers and event clinicians.



Hutton, A., Ranse, J., Gray, K. L., Turris, S., Lund, A., & Munn, M. B. (2020). Psychosocial Influences on Patient Presentations: Considerations for Research and Evaluation at Mass-Gathering Events. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 1-9. DOI: